Federalism Is Inscribed In The Constitution And The Penal Code

Article 68 of the Constitution and Section 101 of the Penal Code acknowledge Cameroon is a Federated State; hence sundry charges against Anglophone Consortium leaders are baseless and unconstitutional.

It is now beyond argument that the Anglophone problem has passed crisis point and is nearing the point of no return, thanks to government’s obstinate refusal to consider demands for a return to federalism, which every honest, discerning Cameroonian knows to be the sensible way forward.

 

It is also obvious Anglophones have lost faith in the “one, united and indivisible” Cameroon project, and are now trending towards restoration of Southern Cameroons independence as non-negotiable.

 

What is also not in doubt is that all shenanigans and desperate measures by government to break the Anglophone resolve and end the strikes have failed.

The times therefore demand a game-changer and the choice is either federalism or Anglophone independence.

 

Although it might already be too late in the day, President Biya can still save Cameroon from disintegration by calling a national conference to discuss a return to federalism. Alternatively, a bill to this effect could be tabled in Parliament.

 

Either way, further delay only radicalizes more Anglophones and forecloses a peaceful resolution of the crisis. A situation where aggrieved Anglophones demand federalism and government belligerently opens the door to secession cannot be said to be in the national interest.

The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result. If the government has any illusions that intimidation and brute force and token measures of appeasement like the creation of common law departments in State Universities; the mass recruitment of Anglophone teachers; special recruitment of Anglophones in ENAM and creation of a bilingualism and multicultural commission would break the Anglophone resistance, they should realize by now that the strategy has failed.

 

There are very clear signals that Anglophones have been blowing federalism into the national consciousness as a powerful idea whose time has come, and no force on earth can stop at the moment.

Despite the internet blackout and militarization of Anglophone regions, ghost towns have persisted; national holidays were largely boycotted; schools remain closed and courts are grounded.

 

The degree of travesty to which government has descended to ensure GCE exams are written in Anglophone regions is a mark of desperation that signals the need for a new strategy to address the crisis.

It is dereliction of duty for Mr. President not to realize that the era of mindless sycophancy is over. Biya should demand accountability and stop allowing himself to be deceived by self-serving Anglophone CPDM barons who have squandered hundreds of millions on meetings and rallies with rented crowds, yet, nothing has changed.

 

The message is clear: the true representatives of Anglophones are the Consortium leaders and it was time Biya recognizes this fact and reopen dialogue with them. Running down the clock by repeatedly adjourning the trial of the Consortium leaders will have the unintended consequences of prolonging the crisis.

 

It stretches credulity that the government is yet to understand that the continuous detention of the Consortium leaders is the main issue fueling and sustaining the Anglophone resistance.

Biya should, without further delay, order the release all Anglophone detainees and end the charade in the military tribunal, even if only because the trial raises constitutional and jurisprudential challenges that put the government in legal jeopardy of Article 68 of the constitution and Section 101 of the penal code, which acknowledge Cameroon as a “Federated State”.

 

Part IV of the Penal Code enacted into law on July 12, 2016, dealing with “State Law” is unequivocal that Cameroon is a federation of two distinct states.

 

Under “Breach of State Law and Others” Section 101(1) states inter alia that: “Where any law of either Federated State expressly so provides, any breach of such law which is not defined or punishable under this Code or any other federated law shall be punished with imprisonment for up to 1 (one) year or with fine of from CFAF 25,000 (twenty-five thousand) to CFAF 500,000 (five hundred thousand) or with both such imprisonment and fine.”

Even narrowly construed, interpretation of Section 101 in extant context cannot be a question of legal ambiguity or ambivalence over the “spirit” and the “letter” of the law.

 

Unmindful of any constitutional clarity, or claw back provisions which alters the literary meaning of “federated state,” it is ab initio, unconstitutional for Cameroon as a “Federated State” to criminalize a demand for federalism as provided for in Section 101 of the penal code –the de jure primary resource document for maintaining law and order and promoting the rule of law in the country.

Besides, Art 68 of the 1996 constitution also states that all: “legislation applicable in the Federal State of Cameroon and in the Federated States on the date of entry into force of this Constitution shall remain in force insofar as it is not repugnant to this Constitution, and as long as it is not amended by subsequent laws and regulations.”

 

If Cameroon is a Federated State as per the constitution and penal code, then the demand for a return to federalism by the Anglophone Consortium leaders, cannot, ipso facto, be legally construed as “felonies and misdemeanors against the state” or as offences of secession, revolution, treason and “hostilities against the fatherland” provided in Sections 102, 103, 111 and 114 of the same penal code, which carry the death penalty.

 

The Consortium leaders spoke for majority of Anglophones who believe the only way to guarantee their survival as a minority is to return to a 2-state federation.

For a plural country such as Cameroon, a federal system preserves its “unity in diversity” and allows, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, a reasonable level of autonomy to the federating regions. Despite all the clear signs that centralization has failed, it is, indeed, sad that mischief makers have chosen to see federalism as a ploy by Anglophones to secede so that Francophones would not have access to their oil and natural resources.

It must be repeated unequivocally that the most fundamental least common denominator of decades of centralization is poverty and mass illiteracy. Cameroon has not exhibited any critical indices of a modern state.

 

In other words, the real trouble is not just poverty nurtured by corruption and illiteracy but a profound lack of understanding of how federalism will benefit Cameroonians from all regions, through a fair and equitable mobilization and allocation of national revenue, which is fundamental to a just society and national stability.

A revenue allocation formula where the public investment budget for the South region, is more than the combined allocation for the NW and the SW regions is unjustifiable, given that the Anglophone regions account for over 60% of national GDP.

 

The fiscal component is central to federalism, and it is as much economics as it is politics.

 

It bears repeating that centralization has engendered crass opportunism and enlightened self-interest, which have given birth to small minds as “big men” in high places, whose focus on revenue allocation is on how the “national cake” is shared among various ethnic groups, instead of how the “national cake” can be enlarged and baked better.

It is time to tell Cameroonians, including those misleading the people about federalism that, just as there is oil in the Southwest, cocoa in the Center, mineral deposits in the East, timber in the South, the Grand North has grains, nuts and cotton.

 

In an ideal Cameroon, any region can go to another and invest in some mineral or agricultural resources and employ the people there.

 

For example, the Center region might decide to invest in a value-added timber processing plant in the East or Littoral might join the Southwest in a food processing venture or the West investing in rice production in the Northwest, which can leverage its human capital; being an educational nerve-center and region of learning with the best schools in the country. Adamawa, of course, can join the North to showcase self-dependence by finding its groove in maize cultivation and agro-industrialization.

 

In all these instances, Cameroonians where the investments are made will be employed and taxes will be paid to the region, after all.

Against the background of diversification, there will be a balance of opportunity to exploit what is available in all regions. The federating regions would retain on the principle of derivation, a specified amount from exploitation of their respective mineral proceeds and generated tax revenue.

 

The balance goes to a Federation account to be shared amongst the regions under an agreed equitable revenue distribution formula that will mitigate cleavages and help less endowed states chart their own course of development.

 

The time has come for Cameroonian leaders from all regions to remove politics from discussions of federalism and focus on how cattle rearing, onions, groundnuts, tomatoes, potatoes, fish and other products can be exploited for the glory of the nation.

 

If regions are not allowed to exploit their natural endowments and develop policies based on priorities, development at the center will be a mirage. It is a shame that Cameroonian leaders would not be eager to harness the vast natural and agriculture resources within the context of a true federation, which will strengthen democracy and make the country, grow economically.

 

All Cameroonians must show and demonstrate an understanding beyond the dubious position of self-serving elite who associate true federalism with secession.

Cameroon’s manifest contradictions have always underlined the need for a national dialogue. These contradictions have reached saturation point and a fresh opportunity to honestly and conclusively discuss these issues is through a national conference.

 

Such a conference, whether sovereign or not, must confront the structure of the state, the structure of government and the organization of the economic base in terms of the ownership and control of resources as well as the formula for the distributable common pool.

 

The main question for the national conference will be: do Cameroonians want a decentralized unitary system with all power concentrated in Yaoundé; or do Cameroonians want a federal system under which each region would exercise autonomy?

 

If we favor a federal system, should we return to the two-state federation or should the existing regions become a 10-state federation, or should we create more regions? Addressing these issues is one sure path to Cameroon’s greatness and one the government cannot fail to walk.

*Ekinneh Agbaw-Ebai is a Public Intellectual and graduate of Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, where he was Managing Editor of the Harvard Journal of African-American Public Policy. A former Research Analyst for Freedom House, he is a Consultant and lives in Boston, USA. Talk back at ekinneh@yahoo.com

997 thoughts on “Federalism Is Inscribed In The Constitution And The Penal Code

  1. ● Save Hundreds: You need to pay at least 45-100 dollars for a complete leg, why deny our all-in-one shaving set, to do the wonderful task yourself in the convenience of your very own house? WAX PACKAGE CONSISTS OF – Conserve money with our ALL-IN-ONE Waxing Package. ● Conserve Products: Our waxes are used slim and also also. ● Excellent Quality Item: Our reduced temperature level waxes have actually been specially created for delicate skins, appropriate for all the skin types. Cutting doesn’t last-hair might reveal back up that exact same day by a darkness, or, at best, for those with lighter hair, a pair days later over the skin. Abortion is prohibited in Brazil, other than in instances of rape, which may press a lot more ladies to prevent obtaining expecting under the threat of Zika. Earlier this year the Reverend Luciano Brito, a representative for the Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife, claimed, “Absolutely nothing justifies an abortion. The scientists, who released their operate in The Journal of Family Preparation and also Reproductive Healthcare, hope their data will certainly assist boost reproductive rights in the culturally Catholic nation.

    Still, religious beliefs did not appear to influence household preparation in the study Р58 percent of Catholic females and 55 percent of brazilian sexy women evangelical ladies reported preventing maternity as a result of the epidemic. Eighty-three percent of the Brazilian women population is stood for in the research. Not a brazilian partner. Ideal for Brazilian wax, swimsuit wax, brow waxing kit & warm wax hair removal kit. Dining establishments and caf̩s are the perfect Brazilian dating websites for an initial day with a woman considering that food joins spirits. As a marriage of women will see you, the possibility of meeting the optimal match is a lot greater than if you have no video.BrazilCupid has attached thousands of Brazilian songs with their suits from around the globe, making us among the most relied on dating sites. Therefore, to satisfy Brazilian females online, you can utilize different online dating systems. They can merely study a new ambience of routines and personalizeds.

    When searching our site, you can discover lots of info committed to on-line dating. I am over. Brazilian Pals Date – A completely totally free dating site for Brazilian songs, offers the system to fulfill regional single Brazilians from your nearby regions. Local women are very attractive and have great characters. Passwords are the heritage of oriental dating debauchery dave. Similar to in the US, Tinder is still considered a much more “informal” dating app, despite the fact that you’ll still find destination ladies of every ages looking for extra significant dating connections on it. Actually, there are just two means to fulfill warm Brazilian ladies: you can go down whatever as well as relocate across the globe to delight in the sunlight, sand, sea, as well as flirting with warm ladies, or discover the globe of dating sites and lots of lovely females’s profiles. The rates can range from $100 to $200. The myriad defects brought on by the infection range from the small head and brain of microcephaly to hearing, vision, and also developmental delays.

    Additionally, Brazilian ladies recognize the importance of being the head of the household. They have expertise and abilities to transform a bachelor residence into a household area. Explore the Pantanal. You ought to see this place in Brazil if you’re keen on nature. As a newbie visitor to Brazil, you will most likely only go to one or 2 areas in the country and also won’t be able to travel all across Brazil in your restricted amount of time. Youthful Brazil girls aid their moms and dads with cleaning from childhood years. You can not help yet discover that they are some of the most enthusiastic ladies you have actually ever seen when you meet Brazilian bride-to-bes for the first time. Yet truthfully, this is not the very first thing you think concerning her when seeing her Instagram images. You might have been fantasizing about Brazilian females for marriage for years or never also taken into consideration obtaining a Brazilian partner up until currently, yet something is clear: these ladies make superb spouses and also you must really feel very fortunate to marry a Brazilian woman. Brazilian charm is really striking as well as highly recognizable, so you can relax ensured your Brazilian other half will certainly attract great deals of focus anywhere you go. They think that they can resolve those problems by emigrating for marital relationship.

  2. CharmDate works as a relationship service. Charm Date has two sections – Dating Suggestions and Security Tips. Similar to every other dating site, charm date absolutely operates on a paid membership. How do you profit from a paid membership? You will note only the last one hundred people you’ve communicated with over the last six months displayed in your contact list. How do I do know the members on CharmDate are actual folks? Whether you like it or not, in the trendy era, virtual online communication has largely replaced real communication. One of many things we like essentially the most about Charm Date and what puts it in front of the competition is the availability of each a cell model of the web site and a mobile app. All data and data processing on the web site is encrypted with an SSL-encryption code. Along with offering courting tricks to its shoppers, the support staff also supplies mandatory warning info on the web site. The homeowners of the website need to know you could have serious intentions and should not there only for the joys of it. I’ve observed this when a minimum of one lady requested a chat with me. CamShare. This function is a two-means paid video chat.

    Alternatively, you will get one credit score for 5 minutes of a one-approach video dialog. You’ll be able to learn a whole lot of comfortable stories of those that discovered each other and built sturdy household bonds with children. It’s difficult to hear feminine pals complain about husbands who want it regularly and then come again to a house the place nobody is pursuing her. As for male customers, they arrive from completely different parts of the world. None of the courting sites on our checklist are fully free. Regardless that the response of customer care service is fairly larger to the premium member, a free consumer also will get attended to. The customer care companies are present around the clock, therefore making it easy and fast for them to reply to you. The shopper care service on the Charmdate website is past good. The main aim of the CharmDate website is to let Western men meet Ukrainian/Russian matches. What Members Can you Meet on the CharmDateSite?

    As for males, you will meet all age groups to satisfy your preferences and expectations. You want to reply a number of questions relating to your match preferences. As soon as you could have obtained a verification e-mail, it is best to answer several questions regarding your perfect matches. Charm date is proud to be over certified in all areas regarding security inside the location. Charm date has carried out rather a lot to satisfy the needs of its customers. Charm Date puts their costs in the form of ‘credits’ reasonably than dollars. Therefore don’t pay attention to all these imply charm date evaluations. Even supposing the gender distribution is more favorable for ladies, men from the USA, Ukraine, Russia, Canada, New Zealand, Europe, and different nations receive sufficient attention and love from the beautiful and single women. The whole procedure of signing up will solely take greater than a couple of minutes. charmdate Folks embody really always been within the Globe meant for a bunch of Numerous quite a couple of years. Some people discover it irritating, however it’s the one means to attenuate the variety of pretend accounts. Nicely, verification of profiles is an efficient and efficient means of apprehending the scam and fraudulent accounts.

    Because it has been stated within the CharmDate review above, to become a user, you have to cross the verification process. There are stringent guidelines and regulations, which have been carried out to resolve fraudulent points. You are at all times welcomed to ahead your questions or problems to the shopper assist group at all times. The administrative workforce of the positioning has set up a listing of guidelines prohibiting customers from requesting cash or costly gifts. Create your checklist of favorites. The vast majority of feminine contributors are aged between 18-35 years previous. The vast majority of girls are of Slavic descent. CharmDate is a romantic destination for these males who’re eager on Slavic magnificence and want to get a girlfriend from Russia or Ukraine. The website is extensively utilized by males from totally different Western international locations to find and start relationships with Russian, Ukrainian, and different Slavic girls. CharmDate hookup isn’t the case, and it is way more an internet site where people discover actual love. You may make sure to search out ladies to chat and date with not solely on-line however in real life. You have to be ready to supply the private data during the signup process: a legitimate email, birthday, real name, current location.

  3. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google,
    and found that it’s truly informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will appreciate if you continue this in future.
    Many people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  4. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a friend who was doing a
    little research on this. And he actually bought me lunch due to the
    fact that I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this….
    Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending the time to talk about this topic here on your blog.

  5. Those in PA can get a one hundred% deposit bonus up to $250, whilst those in WV get
    net losses back as bonus funds up to $500 for both slots and video poker.

    Feel fre to surf to my blog post: read more

  6. (WHTM) — Pennsylvania is a single of 4 states wih a full-time legislature, but a single Midstate lawmaker desires thnat
    too change.

    Feel free to visit my webb blog webpage

  7. In addition to tthe 31 retirees, five lawmakers have beeen beneath 25 when they had been sworn in in December, andd at least two of
    them are nevertheless students.

    my web page … web page

  8. OMG! This is amazing. Ireally appreciate it~ May I tell you my secret
    ways on a secret only I KNOW and if you want to seriously get to hear You really have to believe mme and have
    faith and I will show how to make passive income Once
    again I want to show my appreciation and may all the blessing
    goes to you now!.

  9. I just couldn’t go away your site prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the standard information an individual supply for your guests?

    Is gonna be back often to check out new posts

  10. Aw, this was an incredibly nice post. Taking a few minutes and actual effort to generate a good article… but what can I say… I procrastinate a lot and never manage to get anything done.

  11. Thanks , I’ve recently been looking for info approximately this subject for a long time and yours is the best I have discovered till now.But, what concerning the conclusion? Are youcertain in regards to the source?

  12. An interesting discussion is definitely worth comment. There’s no doubt that that you ought to publish more on this subject, it may not be a taboo subject but generally folks don’t discuss such issues. To the next! Kind regards!!

  13. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board andI find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot. Ihope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

  14. It is one among the primary serious questions people ask on relationship apps, and sometimes you have to reply it whereas creating the profile itself. For example, many experts admonish individuals who share humorous photos meant to make you snigger on their relationship app profiles, claiming it shows you don’t have serious intentions. Do not upload photos that present simply trackable information, like a landmark seen from your balcony indicating the place you live; or a photograph of you with a name tag showing your place of employment. It shouldn’t really feel like work. Whereas there are limited clinical studies which have particularly analyzed online dating outcomes, there’s decades of research on why relationships work out and what drives individuals together in the primary place. I love to travel, I just lately visited Iceland and, now I’m totally kitted out with warm weather clothes, the Faroe Islands are subsequent on my listing! Editor’s notice: Ready to draw love with a confirmed strategy?

    McLeod’s own big romance was famously the subject of a 2015 entry of the new York Times Fashionable Love column. “People have all the time used intermediaries reminiscent of mothers, associates, priests, or tribe members, to search out an appropriate partner,” Hallam says. Cook. Lockdown has accelerated that development, making individuals accustomed to reside video calls for remote work and keeping in contact with members of the family, he reckons. In case you meet somebody via a pal or household member, simply having that third-celebration connection is a way of helping validate sure traits about somebody (bodily appearance, values, persona traits, and so forth). The identical rule applies to the images you choose to include on your dating profile – they need to reflect your personality (and they should be current photographs). Images should precisely depict your bodily appearance – but they should be photos you generally like, Hallam says. There are particular facets of a relationship you’re by no means going to be able to collect from online interactions alone, Reis says. We’ve all been there. However with the rise in reputation of courting via apps, there are numerous scammers seeking to make a buck off your naivety; individuals who refuse to just accept no means no and keep bugging you; and individuals who don’t know what they want and keep wasting your time.

    Area of interest sites are excellent for people who’re looking for deeper connections primarily based on shared interests and comparable values, while the extra effectively-recognized websites have both audiences who are seeking real companionship and others who want to fulfill individuals who they’d likely by no means interact with on a regular basis. And one factor the apps and sites have going for them is that capability to simply assist you meet more individuals. Ms Fowkes mentioned she wanted to inform her story to forestall different people from being caught by conmen in an analogous manner. Ms Fowkes was eventually alerted to the rip-off by the Economic Crime Unit of West Mercia Police, her native power. Where did you get yours? Don’t get too wrapped up in professional recommendation, and do whatever feels proper. Some conversations may attain a degree where they stall, and it isn’t unusual to get ghosted by your matches out of the blue. Reis factors out that “online dating” is definitely somewhat of a misnomer. “Most of what we are able to say about online dating from analysis is actually more extrapolating from other kinds of studies,” Reis says. Chemistry is an unpredictable animal, and you can have great conversations online or on the cellphone but, no zing whatsoever in person, so don’t waste your time.

    Do not really feel pressurised into chatting on the telephone, meeting, or revealing personal details like your full title, telephone number, e-mail address or place of labor if you don’t need to charmdate.com yet. Then it is time to move along – which meant to the cellphone. If you’re on a courting app, you are sure to face rejection, so study to accept it and transfer on with no fuss. A number of online dating interactions die on the vine of individuals being too scared to make the first move to suggest a next step, whether that is a video chat or real-life date. The Bumble relationship app noticed an over 70 per cent enhance in video calls in Canada in the final week of April 2020. And whereas it could seem lower than perfect, McLeod sees an upside. Specific attributes that typically increase attractiveness and likeability, based on his analysis, were: a real smile (one which makes your eyes begin to crinkle up) and a slight head tilt. You may as well discover apps that cater to specific dating pool preferences. Given how straightforward it’s turn out to be to seek out folks on-line with a few keystrokes, resolve how a lot you are keen to share earlier than even creating your profile.